Earth, or Sol III, is the third planet of the Sol System and home to the human species. In 2161 it was the sight of the founding of the United Federation Of Planets, one of the major powers in our galaxy. Earth houses the Federation Council, the Federation president and Starfleet Headquarters. Nowadays, there are 9,4 billion people living on Earth, most of them human. The planet is governed by the United Earth Government, which is elected by the United Earth Parliament (UEP)
The UE Parliament consists of 56 delegates. Every country sends two delegates into the parliament. The respective delegates are elected by the parliaments of the states which are again elected by the citizens of the states. As the state-parliaments are normally divided up into parliamentary parties, the UE Parliament is a distillation of the prevailing political attitude. The UEP delegates, although primarily responsible for representing their countries, therefore tend to join earth wide coalitions. Many of those coalitions are parts of Federation wide coalitions on their part. The most important coalitions are said to be the United Federal Party (UFP), the Inter-Federal Party (IFP) and the Conservative Parliament Party (CPP) who are present on every member of the Federation except Vulcan, which has a political system not supporting parties. The UEP also chooses one of the three delegates for the Council of the United Federation of Planets the second one being chosen by the UE president from his cabinet and the third one being directly elected by the citizens.
Every five years, the UEP is to be newly established. After the establishment, the delegates have to elect a new president from their midst. The presidential cabinet has to reflect the political structure of the UEP and is appointed by the delegates. It usually takes two to three weeks until all ministers are appointed. The president has the right to suggest, but not to decline ministers. If unsatisfied with the work of a minister, the president can ask her or him to resign. This resignation can be vetoed by the UEP by simple majority.
Bills are introduced by the UEP members and have to be accepted by a qualified majority. If unsatisfied with the bill, the president or the UEP can choose to invoke the conciliation committee, consisting of rotating delegates from three countries. If they fail to reach an agreement, they can invoke the federal conciliation committee that will then make a decision that has a binding character.
The United Earth High Court of Justice is the jurisdictional body of UE. It has seven members, each one hailing from a different country’s high court of justice, being randomly chosen every six years. It can overrule decisions by the UEP or the government if those are to be found illegitimate in constitutional terms. However, this applies only for those bills that have not been found valid by the federal conciliation committee. Those bills would have to be overruled by the Federal High Court of Justice that can be invoked by any of the seven members of the UEHCoJ.
The UE government is responsible for all inter-federal and bilateral affairs not affecting federal authority and for all domestic affairs. This includes colonial, economic, social and security matters.
If the United Earth were to separate herself from the United Federation of Planets, the constitution dictates that a new constitution would have to be approved by a qualified majority of all citizens first.